LEAD will create Digital Twins of urban logistics networks in six cities in TEN-T urban Nodes, namely Madrid (Spain), The Hague (the Netherlands), Budapest (Hungary), Lyon (France), Oslo (Norway) and Porto (Portugal).

These will test and represent different innovative solutions for city logistics to address the requirements of the on-demand economy, while aligning competing interests and creating value for all different stakeholders in a public-private setting.

Each value case will allow for the development of solutions for shared, connected, and low-emission logistics operations, empowered by an adaptive modelling approach and the Digital Twin models. Agent-based models will be used to enable logistics stakeholders to recognise their roles and business models, including relevant operational, tactical, and strategic decisions in the Digital Twin, mirroring value cases in city life.

The long-term vision of LEAD is to design an open, physical internet-inspired framework for smart city logistics that incorporates the created Digital Twins, laying the foundations for the development of large-scale city Digital Twins.