Physical Internet needs in place open, standardized and integrated business models with governance structures to evolve from the current state of the art status to the future PI networked collaborative logistics communities.
The document aims to provide the necessary insights of both business and governance models for horizontal collaboration and networked logistics collaborative communities, on which ICONET evaluates the Physical Internet concepts developed. It outlines
the state of the art on business models for horizontal collaboration and networked collaborative logistics communities, and also indicates which actions and activities are necessary to strengthen the basis for the implementation of the Physical Internet.
PI business and governance models
D1.6 Requirements and High-Level Specifications
for IoT-based Smart PI Containers
This report formalises the requirements and provides the high-level specifications for IoT-based Smart PI Containers, based on in-depth analysis of user requirements and industry needs. The aim is to result to an innovative and interoperable IoT
architecture built to facilitate end-to-end tracking and monitoring of the goods throughout the logistics chain in a PI environment. The report considers and highlights versatile IoT components as part of a Physical Internet configuration.
The report addresses the following key objectives:
Positions the needs of PI in the IoT world, analysing how to engage state-of-the-art solutions to resolve the logistics and supply chain concerns,
Elicits a generic set of specifications capable to depict the required IoT architecture to support the realisation of the PI,
Identifies the expected contribution of the IoT components within the PI context,
Elaborates technological and business innovations generated by the integration of the mentioned IoT components in the PI environment.
Concluding the report lays out the specific IoT technological characteristics and how these can support solutions to the Logistics Industry requirements as identified in today’s business environment and thereby showcase the value-adding nature of the Physical Internet concept.
Requirements and High-Level Specifications
for IoT-based Smart PI Containers
ICONET has created a common PI framework for the ICONET PI Hubs Plans which integrates all PI key elements notions, i.e. PI Hub, PI Corridor, an urban logistics network PI (e-Commerce Fulfilment), all supported by the e-Warehousing as a Service.
The Generic Physical Internet Case Study (GPICS) facilitates the representation (lexical, structural, procedural and semantic) of a real PI system through the creation of a conceptual model for a generic geographic area, comprising of a series of descriptive
elements, the logical relations concerning the components of the system, the input and output data and a set of capabilities for scenarios configuration.
All key PI capabilities are covered by the ICONET’s Living Labs, and GPICS has been employed to consolidate and to abstract the business needs of the ICONET Living Labs use cases considering the insights of the ICONET stakeholders and the Advisory Board.
Generic PI Case Study and associated PI Hubs
Generic PI Case Study and associated PI Hubs Plan - Final (D1.9)
D1.11 PI Protocol Stack and enabling networking
The document provides an analysis of layered service-oriented PI models (the OLI model) and the fundamental capabilities of PI, to implement PI services such as networking and routing in ICONET, which will be used by the simulated the PI models of the
Living Labs operations. In ICONET a solid approach has been put in place, where a large number of elements have been incorporated in the design of processes, under the aim produce a complete, efficient and sustainable logistics service offered
across markets and industries. The thorough analysis of services at each OLI layer provides a better insight to the role that the OLI model can really play in the realization of the PI.
The testing in the project’s Living Labs is also a decisive factor on the extent and level of adopting the present Digital Internet (DI) elements and components to the PI infrastructure. The main conclusion is that the Physical Internet can indeed be
architected along the same principles as the digital Internet with many shared (in functionality) components. The admittedly complex and interrelated Logistics services in today’s Supply Chain Industry can benefit from a layered service ‘schema’ needed
to be applicable to various industries, markets and technological levels. However, there are differences between the PI and the DI and uncharted territories which need to be explored in an effort to successfully create a robust and effective PI network.
PI Protocol Stack and enabling networking
PI Protocol Stack and enabling networking technologies - Final (D1.12)
This document provides a blueprint of the reference solution architecture including the PI services, their inputs and expected outputs as well as the dependencies between services, synthesizing the overall architecture of the ICONET PI system. The main
inputs to the design of the Architecture were the key business requirements based on a generic PI use case scenario, as well as the specific requirements of the ICONET Living Labs, describing the major events, data and decisions that need to be considered
throughout the journey of a PI-container in a PI-network within a PI enabled decentralized architecture, along with the simulated living lab scenarios.
The PI Reference Architecture includes the definitions of the ICONET connectivity models, the modules and components and the data structures required to support the PI network operations in ICONET. The derived architecture is sufficiently generic and
quite high-level to be widely applicable. The PI network data structures have been defined using ontologies.
The primary architecture considerations are the interfacing/integrating with existing logistics platforms and solutions, the security and data protection, regulatory compliance and network service level monitoring.
PI Reference Architecture
The report details the design of the ICONET Physical Internet (PI) core services, namely the Shipping, Encapsulation, Routing and Networking, aligning with OLI/NOLI layers for a standardised PI implementation. The underlying PI ontology describing the
PI Links, Nodes and Services has been formed in the Generic Physical Internet Case Study (GPICS).
The Shipping service comprises of the design; initialization; arrival at PI node; and real time update modules. The function these modules includes the request of shipment and the PI Order, the sequential hops of PI containers in their route to their
destination, communications with the IoT platform and data collection to track the performance of a PI shipment against its contractual bindings.
The encapsulation service implements a number of algorithms including the bin packing algorithm. The service addresses the encapsulation of cargo into PI containers, into H containers, into T containers, into PI Movers/Means, offering a generic tool for
improving operational efficiency and decision making at PI Hubs.
The primary function of the Routing and Networking service is network discovery, providing a standardised and complete representation of the PI for further decision making. Several network-representation approaches have been considered focusing at varying
network configurations. A guideline for networking service implementation into different contexts is provided.
All Services presented in this report have been integrated with the Proof of Concept (PoC) Platform.
PI networking, routing, shipping and encapsulation
layer algorithms and services
The deliverables D2.7 and D2.8 which is an upgrade iteration of the first, (a) define the interaction model of the PI Nodes, for interoperable, secure and ad-hoc transactions with the whole of the PI-world and its users, (b) advances towards a PI
common language, suggesting a standardised ontology for the IoT environment, (c) updates the hardware and software architecture of the PI devices, integrating inputs from flagship EU projects, (d) suggests possible approaches to improve the interoperability
towards a PI common language.
The ICONET Smart PI Containers are realizing the following functions:
Deploy devices capable of monitoring the presence and the status of the goods within the PI-containers, the PI-warehouses and the PI-hubs.
Establish a ubiquitous and opportunistic network for data dispatchment toward the Cloud applications.
Deliver secure ad-hoc transactions to implement the correct information dispatchment toward the correct user.
The overall aims of the ICONET Smart PI Containers approach are to:
Realise a Smart PI container capable to answer to the questions “Where?”, “When?” and “How?”. Semantic interoperability within the IoT environment is achieved via a standardised lightweight ontology to be integrated within IoT devices.
Enable ubiquitous IoT networking throughout the whole supply chain, providing IoT connectivity also within PI-warehouse, PI-Hubs, etc. Introduce the Smart Gateways, enabling interoperability with third party environments via several IoT protocols.
Realise a Cloud based platform to collect, store and visualise data gathered from the hardware devices, providing a highly reconfigurable interoperability with third party environments, in a secure and ad-hoc manner.
Define the interaction model between these components and with the rest of the PI world. The Smart PI Containers specify the IoT Cloud Services and interactions with the rest of the PI environment, for the realisation of secure, interoperable and
ad-hoc RESTful interfaces.
Containers – Tracking & Reporting as a Service
D2.9, D2.10, D2.11 Blockchain Transactional Ledgers and Smart
Contracts as PI enablers
The overall objective is to introduce Blockchain to the ICONET Living Labs PI use cases and describe the reasoning behind the programmatic steps taken with the formation of smart contracts that interact with PI-specific components such as “PI routing”
and “PI packets”.
ICONET implemented an ‘in-project’ blockchain solution, created upon the Tendermint consensus mechanism. The rationale behind this choice is that the Tendermint consensus engine provides freedom in the way the blockchain operates down to
the block acceptance protocol, enabling to create fast and efficient mechanisms for the PI, avoiding the unnecessary computational overhead that exists in solutions based on e.g. the Hyperledger Fabric.
The introduction of Blockchain in ICONET focuses on the dynamic allocation of space in PI Hubs for PI Packets. To fully capitalize on the benefits of blockchain technology, the automatic generation of Ricardian contracts has been considered. Blockchain
is introduced as the traceable and immutable record of all actions occurring with regards to the Ricardian contracts and the relevant PI components, resulting a Blockchain-aided mechanism for disputes resolution. The issues with this approach may
be (a) concerns on whether it is legally acceptable to automatically generate enforceable Ricardian contracts, and (b) how to showcase the programmatic automation of a traditional PI contract translated to the vocabulary of a Ricardian contract.
D2.9 sets the baseline for the ICONET blockchain solution development. It outlines the requirements under the context of PI, and plans the implementation of the utility, also resulting to an alpha implementation of the blockchain showcasing the
capability of establishing a basic SLA and associating it with a PI container throughout its journey.
D2.10 expands the solution to accommodate the use cases of the Living Labs. It defines the functionalities of the blockchain enabled system and how these are exploited in each Living Lab testbed. Blockchain has been upgraded with an externally
accessible API which consumes the ICONET transport events, to create and maintain SLAs according to a set of rules provided during the creation of an order.
D2.11 aggregates the Ricardian contract related findings and investigates the applicability of an automated dispute resolution system based on immutable data derived from the blockchain, in tandem with the formal terms of the Ricardian contracts
themselves. This trait could potentially reduce the cost of the legal resolution of disputes arising from voided transport contracts in the PI world.
The deliverables D2.13 and D2.14 which is an upgrade iteration of the first, present a number of machine learning models, trained and validated, for the prediction of product stocks in warehouses and stores. An improvement of the Bin Packing algorithm
implementation which was used for the optimization of operations within port yards is also outlined.
Key objectives of the Intelligent Optimisation of PI resources are outlined below:
Help the decentralization of order fulfilment in the ecommerce domain
Stock out prediction to increase order fulfilment efficiency
Provide relevant planning of warehouse space utilization
Increase warehouse Quality of Service by optimizing picking time of orders
Inform the Routing Service to maximise centralised route and capacity planning
The developed models have been trained using Living Lab data and can lead to a decentralisation of Supply Chain activities, resulting in increased time savings and a better usage of available resources. An additional benefit, in relation to the fulfilment
of food orders, is the reduction in overall food wastage, which is one of the drivers of high cost, both economically and socially.
The datasets provided by Sonae and Stockbooking represent a unique and significant amount of data for research. Access to these datasets have allowed for the application of the most up to date machine and deep learning techniques. Models like Long Short-Term
Memory neural network have shown accuracy in prediction and flexibility towards the statistical properties of the dataset.
D2.18 Mixed Digital/Physical Simulation Models for
The simulation work is the testing bed of the
ICONET Living Labs, setting the framework through which the ICONET PI concepts
are tested and validated by the stakeholders.
ICONET develops the digital and physical
simulation models necessary to assess different scenarios with
central focus on the evaluation and design of the Generic Physical
Internet Case Study (GPICS) simulation components. The model
components are designed to be generic enough to ensure that the
Generic Physical Internet scenario can be fully represented, taking
also into account the specific requirements of the Living Labs.
The Physical/ Digital simulation models have
enhanced the representation of the behaviour and interrelationship of various
elements and factors necessary to test and validate the PI concept from a more
realistic, day-to-day, point of view in each and every living lab.
Mixed Digital/Physical Simulation Models for
D2.20 ICONET PI Control
and Management Platform
The main objective is to see how to move the PI concept closer to realisation and adoption by major logistics stakeholders by providing a robust, dynamic and flexible platform in which PI Services can be safely and securely developed, integrated internally,
integrated externally and evaluated in their application to the Living Lab use cases.
The document discusses the architecture goals of ICONET as a decentralised peer-to-peer based architecture, the benefits and the implications of such a design, including the top-level service relationships and interdependencies and the deeper insights
regarding the PI services functionality, inputs, outputs and API templates.
Based on these insights derived a technical configuration has been carried out to derive the Proof of Concept Integration Platform, with particular focus is placed on how this will support the service deployments and requirements. Further, the document
describes the practical PI Service deployments that have taken place, their configurations and specific technologies used.
New concepts of multi-cloud and hybrid-cloud
will expand the reach of the cloud beyond the datacentre and out to edge and
low power devices in the fog. As IoT becomes more prevalent in the transport
and logistics sector, the ability for the PI to leverage these new technologies
while adapting to future trends is critical and the research in this document
lays out recommendations to take advantage of new cloud and fog computing
trends. This allows for PI Services to be deployed and managed in a distributed yet orchestrated manner across heterogenous device types, increasing the adoption and the future disruptive potential, of PI Services.
This document extends
D2.20 by enhancing the flexibility, security and robustness of the PI Service
networks, communication, node-to-node communication and PI Service deployments
by ensuring they are cost effective and valid in real world scenarios. The
defined approach allows PI Service developers to focus on PI related
functionality for logistics operations and offloads non-functional requirements
(security, config etc.) to the PaaS services and dev-ops personnel.
The document concludes with visualised
blueprint containing all major components, services, systems and ICONET
technical assets that were created, configured, deployed and developed as part
of all three PoC Integration Platform. ICONET PI PoC